QoS-Aware and Heterogeneously Clustered RoutingProtocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

QoS-Aware and Heterogeneously Clustered RoutingProtocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

QoS-Aware and Heterogeneously Clustered RoutingProtocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
QoS-Aware and Heterogeneously Clustered RoutingProtocol for Wireless Sensor Networks


Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have gained muchattention in today’s research domain for supporting a widevariety of applications including the multimedia applications.Multimedia applications that are regarded as the quality-ofservice(QoS)-aware, delay sensitive, and bandwidth hungry applications,require enough energy and communication resources.WSNs being the energy-scarce network have now been designedin such a way that they can support these delay-sensitive andtime-critical applications. In this paper, we propose an energyefficientrouting protocol for heterogeneous WSNs to supportthe delay sensitive, bandwidth hungry, time-critical, and QoSawareapplications. The proposed QoS-aware and heterogeneouslyclustered routing (QHCR) protocol not only conservesthe energy in the network, but also provides the dedicated pathsfor the real-time and delay sensitive applications. The inclusion ofdifferent energy-levels for the heterogeneous WSNs also providethe stability in the networks while minimizing the delay forthe delay-sensitive applications. Extensive simulations have beenperformed to validate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme.Our proposed routing scheme outperforms other state-of-the-artschemes in terms of the delay performances.


  • In Existing system authors have proposed a clustering scheme for the heterogeneous WSNs. In this scheme, the concept of sun nodes with static clustering scheme has been introduced to conserve the energy in the system.
  • The sleep-awake cycle enables the tiny sensor nodes to conserve the maximum energy while improving the network life time.
  • However, in this scheme the transmission of the multimedia applications with delay sensitive data has not been considered. Also, the heterogeneous WSNs do not include all the sun nodes in clustering scheme to take the clustering scheme.


  • Decrease network lifetime & throughput.
  • Cause high end-to-end delay.


  • We propose an energy-efficient QoS-aware and heterogeneously clustered routing (QHCR) protocol for the transmission of real-time and non-real-time traffic. The concept of heterogeneity is employed to provide energy-efficient routing protocols for heterogeneous WSNs. Sensing nodes with different amounts of initial energies are categorized into four energy levels.
  • Nodes belonging to each energy level are clustered with nodes belonging to the same energy level. QHCR protocol adopts multipath routing techniques that use several alternative routing paths from a source to a destination. The multipath approach also provides dedicated paths for real-time traffic.
  • The best and shortest paths are selected on the basis of the new metric, which is based on the initial energies of the sensing nodes and other link metrics. These link metrics consider the traffic load and packet delivery ratio. The different energy levels with the clustered approach and the inclusion of multipath provide energy efficiency, QoS, load balancing, fault tolerance, and reliability in the WSNs.


  • Shows an improvement in network lifetime, stability, throughput and minimization in end-to-enddelay.




  • System : Pentium Dual Core.
  • Hard Disk : 120 GB.
  • Monitor : 15’’LED
  • Input Devices : Keyboard, Mouse
  • Ram :1GB


  • Operating system : Windows XP/UBUNTU.
  • Implementation : NS2
  • NS2 Version : 2.28
  • Front End : OTCL (Object Oriented Tool Command  Language)
  • Tool : Cygwin (To simulate in Windows OS)


Muhammad Amjad, Muhammad Khalil Afzal, Tariq Umer, and Byung-Seo Kim, “QoS-Aware and Heterogeneously Clustered RoutingProtocol for Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE Access, 2017.