2D Quaternion Sparse Discriminant Analysis

2D Quaternion Sparse Discriminant Analysis

2D Quaternion Sparse Discriminant Analysis
2D Quaternion Sparse Discriminant Analysis

Abstract:

Linear discriminant analysis has been incorporated with various representations and measurements for dimension reduction and feature extraction. In this paper, we propose two-dimensional quaternion sparse discriminant analysis (2D-QSDA) that meets the requirements of representing RGB and RGB-D images. 2D-QSDA advances in three aspects: 1) including sparse regularization, 2D-QSDA relies only on the important variables, and thus shows good generalization ability to the out-of-sample data which are unseen during the training phase; 2) benefited from quaternion representation, 2D-QSDA well preserves the high order correlation among different image channels and provides a unified approach to extract features from RGB and RGB-D images; 3) the spatial structure of the input images is also retained via the matrix-based processing. We tackle the constrained trace ratio problem of 2D-QSDA by solving a corresponding constrained trace difference problem, which is then transformed into a quaternion sparse regression (QSR) model. Afterward, we reformulate the QSR model to an equivalent complex form to avoid the processing of the complicated structure of quaternions. A nested iterative algorithm is designed to learn the solution of 2D-QSDA in the complex space and then we convert this solution back to the quaternion domain. To improve the separability of 2D-QSDA, we further propose 2D-QSDAw using the weighted pair wise between-class distances. Extensive experiments on RGB and RGB-D databases demonstrate the effectiveness of 2D-QSDA and 2D-QSDAw compared with peer competitors.